**by Venkatesan Guruswami (Simons Institute)**

Summer is typically a quiet time on university campuses, but not at the Simons Institute, where two programs — one on __Analysis and TCS__, and another on __Quantum Computing__ — are buzzing along. One might recall that one of the inaugural programs hosted by the Simons Institute, back in Fall 2013, was Real Analysis in Computer Science. In the decade since, the field has cultivated influential new themes such as global hypercontractivity and spectral independence, incorporated methods based on high-dimensional expanders and stochastic calculus, and also enabled striking applications in hardness of approximation, Markov chain analysis, and coding theory. All this progress makes this an excellent time to reconvene a program on this topic. The Quantum Computing program has a special focus on the power of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices, a subject of great current practical interest aimed at demonstrating quantum advantage with noisy devices (pre-quantum error correction), with unique challenges for and great synergy with theory.

These programs come on the heels of a very busy spring semester that hosted a __program on Meta-Complexity__, which __I wrote about earlier__, and an __extended reunion on the theory and practice of Satisfiability__. The participants in the latter program were exposed to both the theoretical and the practical aspects of SAT solving in parallel, and especially for junior researchers, getting such a perspective early in their careers provides an unparalleled platform from which to embark on interdisciplinary and high-impact research.

**Generating primes, almost deterministically**__One of the papers__ to come out of the Meta-Complexity program, co-authored by a team of five full-time participants in the program (Chen, Lu, Oliveira, Ren, and Santhanam), gives a randomized algorithm that on infinitely many inputs *n*, runs in poly(*n*) time and with high probability generates a canonical *n*-bit prime. A randomized polynomial-time algorithm to generate some *n*-bit prime is easy, as one can just sample *O*(*n*) random *n*-bit numbers, test them for primality, and output a prime among them. But such an algorithm can output different primes on different runs. A deterministic algorithm outputting a single prime always would be desirable, but such an algorithm remains elusive. A pseudodeterministic algorithm is an intriguing middle ground and is a randomized algorithm that on any input outputs a unique answer with high probability. Motivated by the question of generating canonical primes, the concept of pseudodeterministic algorithms was introduced by Gat and Goldwasser in 2011 and has since received much attention. But a pseudodeterministic polynomial-time algorithm for prime generation remained open, and the present work solves it modulo the caveat of only working infinitely often. *Actually, the result has nothing to do with generating primes per se*, and works for any property of numbers that occurs sufficiently often and that can be checked in polynomial time (both of which hold for primality).

A few years ago, a subset of the present authors gave a subexponential (i.e., exp(*n*^{0.01})) pseudodeterministic algorithm for generating primes (again only for infinitely many lengths). This was based on a win-win argument that converts a conditional hardness-randomness trade-off (a specific uniform version due to Trevisan and Vadhan) into an unconditional pseudodeterministic algorithm. Namely, if a certain PSPACE-complete language *L* that they construct is not in BPP, then one can build a pseudorandom set of subexponential size that fools polynomial-time randomized algorithms (infinitely often). So in this case, one can derandomize the trivial randomized algorithm to generate primes and get a deterministic subexponential-time algorithm. On the other hand, if *L* is in BPP, then the polynomial-space algorithm that searches over all *n*-bit numbers to find the lexicographically smallest prime yields a polynomial-time pseudodeterministic algorithm.